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Wednesday, September 7, 2016

How the Origin Myth of the Hadza Explains Evolution

"The Hadza's oral history of their own past is divided into four epochs, each inhabited by a different culture. According to this tradition, in the beginning of time, the world was inhabited by hairy giants called the Akakaanebe or Gelanebe, "ancestors". The Akakaanebe did not possess tools or fire; they hunted game by staring at it and it fell dead; they ate the meat raw. They did not build houses but slept under trees, as the Hadza do today in the dry season. In older versions of this story, fire was not used because it was physically impossible in the earth's primeval state, while younger Hadza, who have been to school, say that the Akakaanebe simply did not know how. 
In the second epoch, the Akakaanebe were succeeded by the Tlaatlanebe, equally gigantic but without hair. Fire could be made and used to cook meat, but animals had grown more wary of humans and had to be chased and hunted with dogs. The Tlaatlanebe were the first people to use medicines and charms to protect themselves from enemies and initiated the epeme rite. They lived in caves. 
The third epoch was inhabited by the Hamakwabe "nowadays", who were smaller than their predecessors. They invented bows and arrows, and containers for cooking, and mastered the use of fire. They also built houses like those of Hadza today. The Hamakwabe were the first of the Hadza's ancestors to have contact with non-foraging people, with whom they traded for iron to make knives and arrowheads. The Hamakwabe also invented the gambling game lukuchuko. 
The fourth epoch continues today and is inhabited by the Hamaishonebe, "modern". When discussing the Hamaishonebe epoch, people often mention specific names and places, and can approximately say how many generations ago events occurred."[15] 

The Hadza received introgression from a hominid that split off from our lineage 1.2-1.3 million years ago. 
The last sweep of hairlessness (dark skin genes) occurred in Africa 1.2 million years ago. 
This means that 1.2 million years ago our African ancestors excluded anyone from the genome who did not possess hairlessness, and eventually only those with dark skin survived.
Any hominid living in Africa after 1.2 million years ago that did not have the dark skin gene was not a part of our ancestral genomic population and would have still been hairy. In order for a species to introgress , it has to spend some time outside of the genome it introgressess back into.
In other words, whatever gave the Hadza their 1.3 million year old introgresssion, it was hairy as a chimpanzee.
The Hadza's are "little people" dominated by Y Hap A and therefore closest to "Former Y Adam" (160k old A not 270k+ year old A00).  They average around 4 feet tall.
Homo ergaster averaged 6 foot 1 and possessed ape-like strength.

1.3 Million year old introgression = hairy homo ergaster, the Hadza's "hairy giants without fire"

Neighbor tribes of little people, and possibly the Hadza themselves, also have 700k introgression from a different source. 
About 700 thousand years ago, advanced skulls of homo erectus began to appear in Africa. Some scientist consider these the first examples of Homo sapien, or Archaic Homo Sapien. They've also been called African Heidelbergs and represent the next stage of hominid evolution after homo erectus.
So any 700 thousand year old introgression received by the Hadza inside Africa would have to be from them.  Bodo is our most likely African Ancestor circa 700k ago, so a species that split off from us 700 thousand years ago in Africa must have split directly from Bodo.

Populations of Archaic Homo Sapiens in Africa reached heights of 7 foot on average.
Again, the Hadza are 4 feet tall and in all likelihood, so were their ancestors.

700K split = Kabwe/ Bodo Archaic Homo Sapiens and the spread of Levaloise into Africa. 
700K Introgression = African "heidelbergs," the Hadza's "hairless giants with fire"

160K- Age of Hadza's A lineage, earliest date of proto-Microliths in Africa (Aterian culture, bows and arrows, first fossils of Homo Sapiens Sapiens in Africa). This culture competes with and eventually replaces the preceding Lavaloise industry.


Pygmies with a similar toolkit as the advanced Africans show up in the Narmada valley of India at this same time (150k ago). They also compete with and eventually replace a preceding Levaloise industry that's been entrenched there since 600k ago. 

The nearby Andaman Islanders have 600k Introgression.  
The 150K old Narmada pygmy has a shoulder bone almost identical to Andamanese islanders. 

All recovered fossils of the the Narmada pygmies  are anatomically modern, though robust. However, Western scientists still call them archaic homo sapiens because a complete skull has not yet been found. The difference between Anatomically modern and Archaic Homo Sapiens Sapiens in this case, and in most cases, is in the features of the face and skull. 

600K introgression- Indian heidelbergs, the Eastern branch of the "hairless giants with fire"


Do the Hadza remember the progression of hominids in Africa  so perfectly from 150K ago when they invented the Bow and Arrow or brought it to Africa from the Middle East? 

Or do they remember it from 35-65k K ago, when they were pushed into Sub-Sahara by Y Haplogroup E invaders? This would require that "hairy" and "hairless" giants survived in Sub-Sahara until the late Pleistocene.
ther eis evidence for the latter - Y Haplogroup A00 is over 300 thousand years old and likely introgressed from Archaic Homo Sapiens, and Iwu Eleru is a Heidelberg-type that dates from only 10,000 years ago.
But the former is a bit more controversial...we don't have any ergaster-like fossils from the Late Paleolithic in Africa.
The "hairy giants" could be the bipedal Bili Apes of the Congo, but that doesn't explain the 1.3 million year old introgression. 
Whoever the Hadza got it from 35- 60 thousand years ago, we don't have a fossil for the species.


Or did both of their "giants" exist into historic times?

 We are not their "giants," as a neighboring tribe with Bantu" haplogroups is often in their legends helping them fight the "hairless giants."TheHadza don't consider the Bantu or Europeans giants, because we're neither tall nor robust enough.

Some will say oral tradition can't be passed down for 30 thousand years. If that's the case then heidelbergs and ergasters must have been living in Africa until just last week, because there is no way the Hadza got their story so straight by daydreaming.






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