This is the model for my prehistoric fiction I use in order to reconcile the data that has been made available to me by scientific studies. There were lots of different sub-groups of hominids 100 thousand years ago all over the "Old World." Anatomically modern humans occupied Africa and SW Asia to the borders of India. However, there were areas in both places that AMHS did not occupy. A massive radiation of neanderthal people and/or genes began around 90 thousand years ago, and extended into Africa and India. The explosion of Toba slowed or even halted that Neanderthal radiation. However, Neanderthals and their genes remained dominant in Europe and most of SW Asia until somewhere between 45 thousand and 70 thousand years ago. Neanderthals occupation of SW Asia cut the genome of Hss in half, with mtDNA Eve in Africa and mtDNA LM3 in East Asia. Possibly mtDNA M and Y hap C were in East Asia too, but another hominid was keeping Hss out of India. Another hominid was keeping Hss out of most of China and still another was keeping Hss out of most of SE Asia. Much of this population was assimilated by various Archaic Asian hominids as the world recovered from Toba. There were two subspecies of hominid in South Asia. One is genomically considered Neanderthal but did not look like a Neanderthal. The other is an unknown species of early homo or austro that likely lived in Sri Lanka. The next radiations of genes and peoples were from several "hybrid" populations. The hybrid of Indian "Neanderthal"(Narmada Man) and Hss contained Y Hap F, among others. The hybrid of SW Asian Neanderthal and Hss contained Y hap DE, among others I don't know which mtDNA haplogroups were contained in these radiations - the vikings screwed that map all to hell by trading in women. The Y Haplogroup F wave slowly assimilated peoples in South Asia and South-Central Asia. They kept Y Hap D people out of India. Y Haplogroup F became dominant in the population and began to diverge into subgroups, extending into parts of SE Asia. Y Hap DE and C slowly dominated everywhere else, pushing and assimilating neanderthals and "denisovans" and groups of 100% Hss people with the spread of their wave. Y Hap A dominant groups in Africa sought refuge in badlands and mixed with the Archaic African Introgression hominid. No doubt the latter's resitance to Malaria helped in the new enviroment, and helped to keep the northerners out. Y Hap B sought reguge in areas where the big bad genes of Idaltu Man still lingered, and he wasn't having any of that Neanderthal crap. Hence we have Archaic African Introgression and Y Haplogroup A00 in Sub-Saharan Africa. 90% of Africans are Y Hap E and have Neanderthal Introgression. It's just that they've just had 60,000 years to decide which Neanderthal genes they wanted to keep, which explains their low levels of Neanderthal and Denisovan introgression. (Most Africans have neanderthal introgression, just not the ones in Sub-Sahara where Archaic African Introgression and Y Hap A00 are more common) But there was another radiation coming, and that one involved the Homo Erectus Soloensis "Denisovan," Y Haplogroup K, and microcephalin D. This Hybrid of Y Hap K Hss, Neanderthal, and the Microcephalin D hominid incubated in SE Asia (or South Asia) from 60 thousand to 25 thousand years ago. Then it finally invaded India and Central Asia, separating the Y Hap E people from the Y Hap D people and killing or out-competing most Y Hap DE people in Central Asia. Also, central Asia has sporadic population in the Paleolithic, so it may be that F and DE had previously alternated occupation of most of it depending on conditions up until that time. They may have even sometimes met and mixed, hence the basal F and possible Y Hap DE* in Tibet and the Caucasus. A later radiation of peoples and genes, either Mesolithic or Neolithic, involved ASPM-D and agriculture. We have mostly been talking about cultural exchange between the SE and SW after 2500 B.C., but the Bilbo mound is actually during the Archaic Period, so I have been reading up on the Archaic today. Looking at what I can find on the Archaic period in the SW, it didn't have as much pottery and favored large points over small points. I would tend to link it with the Paleoindians and Paleo-Siberians and Cromagnons that preceded each other in turn going back 40 thousand years before the Archaic period. The Archaic SE (and Mesoameric?) has a lot of pottery and more midden mounds and stilt houses. So I would link them with the proto-austronesians and australoids before them, who had a similar lifestyle going back 40,000 years. So big game hunters vs. boat people. There's a similar situation in Europe and the Middle East during the Mesolithic. China and Africa are a bit more complicated- the middens and stilt houses are there, but both lack a lot of Y Hap P big game hunter groups. I would not expect to find much artificial cranial modification in NW N. American during the Archaic, except where SE or Mesoamerican cultural intrusion were also present... but I would definitely expect to find it in the SE. There's at least one example in Ga from this period, but I'm not sure of the earliest date in Mesoamerica and Florida. I would expect the possibility of finding Y Hap C or Y haplogroups within K that are not P,Q, or R in the SE during this period, but I would be surprised if we found much in the SW. Especially if it was unaccompanied by the incursion of SE or Mesoamerican cultural artifacts. While I don't doubt that these two complexes exchanged cultural material and genes during the Archaic Period, it looks to me like they mixed a lot more after 3500 B.C. or so. Maybe the biggest mix-up between them was even later, as we've already discussed on this thread how the Yuchi and others were supplanted in a reaction to Colonialism. It sure would explain why the Yamacraw men were so tall and the Yamacraw women so short (if the colonial reports can be relied upon).